Аглицким почти не владею, потому ничего сказать не могу
Плохо, что не владеете.
Давайте для начала разберем вот это:
Why are Anti-tank Guns not Self-propelled?
Why does the Soviet Union not use self-propelled anti-tank guns? This
is a question which many are unable to answer. After all, a self-propelled
gun is far more mobile on the battle-field than one which is towed, and its
crew is better protected. This question has already been partially answered
in the last chapter. The Soviet Union has some excellent self-propelled
anti-tank weapon systems--but it does not put them on display. Nevertheless,
it is true that towed guns are in the majority. Why is this so? There are
Firstly: A towed anti-tank gun is many times easier to manufacture and
to use than one which is self-propelled. In wartime it might be feasible to
reduce the production of tanks; the effect of this would simply be to reduce
the intensity of offensive operations. But a drop in the production of
anti-tank weapons would be catastrophic. Whatever happens, they must be
produced in sufficient quantities. Otherwise any tank breakthrough by the
enemy could prove fatal for the whole military production programme, for the
national economy, and for the Soviet Union itself. In order to ensure that
these guns are turned out, whatever the situation, even in the midst of a
nuclear war, it is essential that they should be as simple in construction
as possible. It was no chance that the first Soviet smoothbore guns to be
produced were anti-tank guns. Smoothbore guns for Soviet tanks were brought
out considerably later. Although a smooth barrel reduces the accuracy of
fire, it enables muzzle velocity to be raised considerably, and, most
important of all, it simplifies the construction of the gun.
Secondly: A towed gun has a very low silhouette, at least half that of
a tank. In single combat with a tank, especially at maximum range, this
offers better protection than armour plate or manoeuvrability.
Thirdly: Anti-tank guns are used in two situations. In defence, when
the enemy has broken through, is advancing fast and must be stopped at any
price. And in an offensive when one's own troops have broken through and are
advancing rapidly, and the enemy tries to cut through the spearhead at its
base, with a flank attack, cutting off the advancing forces from their rear
areas. In both these situations, anti-tank guns must stop the enemy's tanks
at some pre-determined line, which he must not be allowed to cross. Towed
guns are compelled, by the weight of their construction, to fight to the
death. They are unable to manoeuvre or to move to a better position.
Certainly, their losses are always very high. That is why they are
traditionally nicknamed `Farewell, Motherland!' But by stopping the enemy on
the predetermined line, the anti-tank sub-units can save the whole division,
Army and sometimes the whole Front. This is what happened at Kursk. If the
anti-tank guns had been self-propelled, their commander would have been able
to withdraw to a more advantageous position when he came under enemy
pressure. This would have saved his small anti-tank sub-unit, but it might
have brought catastrophe to the division, the Army, the Front and perhaps to
Lest seditious thoughts should enter the head of the anti-tank
commander, and so that he should not think of pulling back in a critical
situation, his anti-tank guns have no means of propulsion. In battle their
armoured tractors are housed in shelters; they would scarcely be able to
pull the guns away from the battle, under the deadly fire of the enemy. Only
one option is available to the crews--to die on the spot, as they prevent
the enemy from crossing the line which they are holding.
During the war, one of the main reasons for the unyielding stability of
the Soviet formations was the presence among them of huge but virtually
immobile units of anti-tank guns.
Почему СА использовала не самоходные, а буксируемые противотанковые орудия?
Согласно версии Суворова причины следующие:
1. Буксируемые орудия много проще в производстве
2. Имеют низкий силуэт
3. Обладают большей устойчивостью в обороне, т.к. в отличие от самоходок не могут быстренько покинуть позиции в критической ситуации, соответственно у командира батареи и не возникает соблазна отдать приказ об отходе на другую позицию в критической ситуации.