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TITLE : SS-N-19 'SHIPWRECK' (P700 GRANIT)
Long-range anti-ship missile.
The improved US ASW defences around carrier battlegroups during the 1970s increasingly restricted the effectiveness of Soviet submarines carrying the SS-N-7/9 `Starbright/`Siren' (Ametist/Malachit). At the same time the Soviet Navy wished to strengthen the defences of its SSBN bastions and this led to a requirement for a new missile, P700 Granit, which retained the philosophy of the long-range air-breathing anti-ship missile philosophy which had begun with P-6 Proygress. The new missile was probably designed by V N Chelomei and was destined for the Project 949 Atomic-Powered Cruise Missile Submarines or `Granit'
class (known in the West as `Oscar' class), the Project 1144 Atomic Rocket Cruisers (`Kirov' class battlecruisers) and the Project 1143.5 Tactical Aircraft-Carrying Cruisers (`Kuznetsov', formerly `Tbilisi' class aircraft carriers. It was also selected for the Project 949A or `Antyey' class nuclear submarines (`Oscar II').
Development of the missile may well have begun during the ninth Five Year Plan (1971-1975) with production authorised in the tenth Five Year Plan (1976-1980). The system entered service with the battlecruiser Kirov in July 1980.
No photographs of `Shipwreck' have yet been published but the missile is believed to have a broad cylinder body with pointed nose. Half way along the body is an air inlet for the turbofan or turbo-jet which is used in the cruising phase after the missile has been launched with the aid of two solid propellant boosters. There are two sharply swept-back wings and two swept-back tail fins with a similar stabiliser on the underside of the missile.
The missile is believed to have an inertial guidance system
possibly with provision for mid-course guidance in over-the-horizon (OTH) engagements although this seems unlikely (see below). Following the usual Soviet practice the missile employs active radar terminal guidance. It uses a 750 kg high explosive warhead with impact and proximity fuzes. Alternative payloads were reported to be nuclear or fuel-air explosive.
In submarines the missiles are carried in pairs of launch tubes inclined at an angle of 40є between the pressure hull and the casing, a hinged hatch protecting each pair. The missiles are arranged in two rows each of six pairs, each pair covered by a 7 m long hatch. In the `Kirov' class there is a similar arrangement although here the pairs of launchers are organised into five rows and each launcher has its own 3.5 x 2.5 m hatch. In the aircraft carriers the missiles are grouped in a similar fashion forward of the `island'. No reloads are carried by any of the platforms using this missile system.
In contrast to its predecessors in the long-range anti-ship role, none of the `Shipwreck' launch platforms appears to carry a missile guidance radar such as Front Door. It is reported that this task may be carried out either by Tu-95 `Bear D' long-range reconnaissance aircraft or the surface ship's Ka-25 `Hormone C' or Ka-27 `Helix B' helicopters with Big Bulge I/J-band radar or Radar Ocean Surveillance Satellites (RORSAT). The submarine fire-control system is apparently based upon the `Rim Hat' mast which is similar to `Bald Head' (see SS-N-7 Starbright/SS-N-9 `Siren'). This is similar to `Bald Head' but at the top of the mast is a `Snoop Pair' radar/ESM/data-link complex with back-to-back antennas, one for radar and the other for ESM/data link. This can be moved to provide a limited 3D facility. It is reported that this system can provide course-correction data to the missile which provides the launch platform with an Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Image allowing for target selection.
However, it seems more probable that the aircraft and the satellite feed target location data to the ships, and it is noteworthy that all the `Shipwreck' launch platforms carry `Punch Bowl' satellite communications systems. Targets can also be acquired by ship sensors, either radar or sonar, the bearing and range data then being fed into the missile guidance system. The outer hatch is then opened and the missile is launched, some reports suggesting a cold launch by means of a ram. The boosters take the missile out of the launcher tube in a ballistic trajectory which is continued when the jet engine begins to operate. When the missile achieves an altitude of 20,000 m it enters the cruise phase.
In its terminal phase the active radar seeker is used to acquire the target. Some reports suggest the missile is so sophisticated that the seeker has a home-on-jam capability. The terminal phase is completed with a high angle dive attack.
Some 300 missiles are believed to have been produced but production is complete. The missile is used only by the Russian Navy.
Class Type Search Launchers/
`Oscar I/II' SSN Snoop Pair 12/24
`Kuznetsov' CV Strut Pair 12/12
`Kirov' CB Top Steer* 20/20
Length: 10 m
Diameter: 85 cm
Wing span: N/K
Weight: 3,250 kg
Speed: Mach 1.6 (some sources state Mach 2 or Mach 2.5)
Range: 550 km (296 nm)
Guidance: Inertial with command update and active radar
COMPANY NAME : NPO Mashinostroyenia