Вечный двигатель или что-то еще?

 
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Господа!!! А как вам такой патент: Свежак-с!!!






United States Patent 6,353,311
Brainard , et al. March 5, 2002



Universal particle flux pressure converter


Abstract
The design of Shaded Rotor devices to demonstrate the existence of a hypothetical Universal Particle Flux Field is presented. These devices should extract a measurable amount of energy from this Field. We believe the Universal Particle Flux Field can explain all invisible forces at a distance phenomena between masses, charged bodies, and magnetic materials. We propose that the Universal Particle Flux Field is a simultaneously convergent/divergent field, where the particle streams traverse to any point in the Universe from every other point in the Universe. The order of this Flux Field is a nearly perfect disorder, which is an order in itself. The strength of the gravitational component of this Field is conventionally denoted by "G". Two neutral masses immersed in such Flux Field will develop forces between them, which are consistent with Newton's Equation of Gravitation. This Field is also consistent with Electrostatic, and Magnetic Force Equations. A magnetic rotor is preferentially shaded with a magnetic stator so that a net torque exists on the rotor. This principle is also applied to an electrostaticly charged Shaded Rotor device. The possibilities that the Beta, the Muon, and the Tau Neutrinos are the Universal Particles and they are producing the Electrostatic, Magnetic, and Gravitational Force Fields respectively, are explored. Laboratory sized Shaded Rotor Devices can be constructed using magnetic and/or electrostatic components; detailed designs are described herein. Circumstantial evidences described herein, indicate that the Universal Gravitational Constant "G" hence the "g" of the Earth is direction and time variable, and it has significantly increased during the last several hundred million years; this may account for the demise of the Dinosaurs, and of the giant vegetation.




Inventors: Brainard; John P. (1419 White Rim Pl. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112); Ney; Robert D. (1304 Narcisco St. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112-6615); Ney; Robert J. (1304 Narcisco St. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112-6615)
Appl. No.: 109595
Filed: July 2, 1998

Current U.S. Class: 324/72; 73/382R; 324/457
Intern'l Class: G01M 001/12
Field of Search: 324/72,457,452 73/382 R,105 376/153,245




References Cited [Referenced By]




U.S. Patent Documents
3114264 Dec., 1963 Williamson 73/382.
3245263 Apr., 1966 Cornelison 73/383.
3315526 Apr., 1967 Schulze 73/383.
3722286 Mar., 1973 Weber 73/382.
4576777 Mar., 1986 Weber 376/153.
4968475 Nov., 1990 Drukier et al. 376/153.
5276717 Jan., 1994 Weber 376/156.

Primary Examiner: Metjahic; Safet
Assistant Examiner: Sundaram; T. R.




Claims





What we claim is new and pray to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is:

1. An apparatus to detect a hypothetical Universal Particle Flux Field by partially shading from said Field a magnetized rotor in one direction of rotation said magnetized rotor is mounted on a rotor shaft which is mounted on low friction bearings with a multitude of elongated stationary shading magnets preferably of a truncated pyramidal shape uniformly positioned around the circumference of said rotor and said elongated stationary shading magnet's longitudinal axes are positioned in a plan substantially perpendicular to said rotor shaft and the extension of said longitudinal axes are slightly within the rotor circumference with the small end of the truncated pyramidal shading magnets facing said rotor.

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2. The apparatus as described in claim 1, wherein said truncated pyramidal stationary shading magnets are polarized substantially parallel to said rotor shaft said rotor shaft is vertical and the upper surface planes of said elongated stationary shading magnets substantially align with the upper surface planes of said rotor and the lower surface planes of said elongated stationary shading magnets are separated sufficiently from the upper surface planes so that a sufficiently strong magnetic field is maintained on said upper surface planes of said elongated stationary shading magnets.

3. The apparatus as described in claim 1, wherein said elongated stationary shading magnets are polarized along the longitudinal axes and said longitudinal axes are substantially centered on the thickness of said rotor at the circumference.

4. The apparatus as described in claim 1, wherein said rotor shaft is vertical and said rotor is radially magnetized by a stationary electromagnet mounted above said rotor in close proximity and a concentric weight is mounted on said rotor shaft in order to substantially compensate for the vertical force between the stationary magnet and said rotor wherein any error in vertical force compensation is taken up by a thrust bearing.

5. The apparatus as described in claim 2, wherein said rotor shaft is vertical and said rotor is radially magnetized by a stationary electromagnet mounted above said rotor in close proximity and a concentric weight is mounted on said rotor shaft in order to substantially compensate for the vertical force between the stationary magnet and said rotor wherein any error in vertical force compensation is taken up by a thrust bearing.

6. The apparatus as described in claim 2, wherein said rotor shaft is vertical and said rotor is circularly magnetized by a stationary electromagnet mounted above said rotor in close proximity and a concentric weight is mounted on the rotor axis in order to substantially compensate for the vertical force between said stationary magnet and said rotor wherein any error in said force compensation is taken up by a thrust bearing.

7. The apparatus as described in claim 2, wherein the apparatus is enclosed in a vacuum chamber in order to minimize air friction.

8. The apparatus as described in claim 3, wherein the apparatus is enclosed in a vacuum chamber in order to minimize air friction.

9. An apparatus to detect a hypothetical Universal Particle Flux Field by partially shading from said Field a rotor in one direction of rotation, comprising a dielectric charged rotor mounted on a central shaft with low friction bearings mounted on each end of said central shaft with a multitude of elongated charged dielectric stationary shading plates uniformly positioned around the circumference of said rotor and are substantially tangent to said rotor.

10. The apparatus as described in claim 9, wherein said rotor is supported by a vertical central shaft supported by a magnetic suspension comprising a stationary ring magnet axially polarized and concentric with close proximity to and located below a similar ring magnet mounted concentric on said vertical central shaft with like poles facing each other with lateral bearings supporting both ends of said vertical central shaft.

11. The apparatus as described in claim 9, wherein the apparatus is enclosed in a vacuum chamber and said dielectric charged rotor and said dielectric stationary shading plates are charged with one or more electron guns.

12. The apparatus as described in claim 10, wherein the apparatus is enclosed in a vacuum chamber and said dielectric charged rotor and said dielectric stationary shading plates are charged with one or more electron guns.

13. An apparatus to detect a hypothetical Universal Particle Flux Field by partially shading from said Field a rotor in one direction of rotation, comprising a dielectric chared disc shaped rotor mounted on a shaft with low friction bearings with a multitude of elongated charged stationary shading plates said shading plates are preferably of trapezoidal shape with the two parallel trapezoidal surface planes are substantially coplanar with the two parallel surface planes of said disc shaped rotor respectively said shading plates are uniformly positioned around the circumference of said rotor with the extension of the axes of the trapezoidal plates aligned slightly within the circumference of said disc shaped rotor with the small ends of the trapezoidal plates facing the rotor.

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14. The apparatus as described in claim 13, wherein the apparatus is enclosed in a vacuum chamber and said dielectric rotor and said dielectric stator plates are charged with one or more electron guns.

15. The apparatus as described in claim 1, wherein an electric dynamometer is mounted on the rotor shaft in order to determine the torque on the rotor needed to calculating the Universal Constant .rho..sub.0 L.sub.0.

16. The apparatus as described in claim 2, wherein an electric dynamometer is mounted on the rotor shaft in order to determine the torque on the rotor needed to calculating the Universal Constant .rho..sub.0 L.sub.0.

17. The apparatus as described in claim 3, wherein an electric dynamometer is mounted on the rotor shaft in order to determine the torque on the rotor needed to calculating the Universal Constant .rho..sub.0 L.sub.0.

18. The apparatus as described in claim 4, wherein an electric dynamometer is mounted on the rotor shaft in order to determine the torque on the rotor needed to calculating the Universal Constant .rho..sub.0 L.sub.0.

19. The apparatus as described in claim 5, wherein an electric dynamometer is mounted on the rotor shaft in order to determine the torque on the rotor needed to calculating the Universal Constant .rho..sub.0 L.sub.0.

20. The apparatus as described in claim 6, wherein an electric dynamometer is mounted on the rotor shaft in order to determine the torque on the rotor needed to calculating the Universal Constant .rho..sub.0 L.sub.0.

21. The apparatus as described in claim 8, wherein an electric dynamometer is mounted on the rotor shaft in order to determine the torque on the rotor needed to calculating the Universal Constant .rho..sub.0 L.sub.0.

22. The apparatus as described in claim 13, wherein an electric dynamometer is mounted on the rotor shaft in order to determine the torque on the rotor needed to calculating the Universal Constant .rho..sub.0 L.sub.0.

23. The apparatus as described in claim 14, wherein an electric dynamometer is mounted on the rotor shaft in order to determine the torque on the rotor needed to calculating the Universal Constant .rho..sub.0 L.sub.0.

24. An apparatus to detect a hypothetical Universal Particle Flux Field by partially shading from said Field a magnetized rotor in one direction of rotation said magnetized rotor is mounted on a rotor shaft which is mounted on low friction bearings said magnetized rotor is surrounded by a magnetized shading ring said shading ring contains a multitude of open slots uniformly positioned around the circumference of said rotor and said open slot's longitudinal axes are positioned in a plane perpendicular to the rotor shaft and the extension of said longitudinal axes are slightly within the rotor circumference in order to permit some of the Universal Particle Flux to impinge unimpeded through said open slots in one direction on the periphery of the rotor in order to produce a net torque on said rotor in one direction of rotation.

25. The apparatus as described in claim 24, wherein an electric dynamometer is mounted on the rotor shaft in order to determine the torque on the rotor needed for calculating the Universal Constant .rho..sub.0 L.sub.0.



Description





BRIEF DESCRIPTION

This invention is based on a presently hypothetical Universal Particle Flux Field (UPF Field). It is necessary to understand this Field in order to understand the subject Universal Particle Flux Pressure Converter invention. This field a simultaneously convergent/divergent field ; (FIG. 1); other such fields occur in Nature and they are quite well understood. Light Photons in a closed chamber with uniformly reflecting walls produce such a flux field. Gas molecules in a partially evacuated spherical chamber can also form such field, when the mean free path of the molecules are much longer than the diameter of the chamber, and hence the molecule substantially do not collide. The motion of these molecules are perfectly random. Two neutral masses immersed in the UPF Field will develop forces between them which are consistent with Newton's Equation of Gravitation. This field is also consistent with the Electrostatic, and Magnetic Force Equations. This hypothesis also indicates why the Detectable Universe does not fall back on itself due to gravitational "attraction" *: the Undetectable Universe beyond the "edge".

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  • We hypothesize that most of this UPF Flux is continuously produced by Supernovae and colliding Galaxies. Black Holes continuously absorb this Flux. The rate of absorption is a function of this Flux density and the magnitude of the central mass of the Black Hole. In this manner, a relatively stable flux density equilibrium is produced in the vast expanses of the greater Universe. Saturated Black Holes explode into Supernovae.
  • The Missing Mass Enigma.
  • A net torque should be produced in such a field, on a rotor made of flux attenuating material, if preferentially shaded with a flux attenuating stator. This principle is similar to a jet impinging on a turbine bucket-wheel (a schematic diagram is given on FIG. 3).

    The central Neutron mass of Black Holes absorb the UP Flux completely. We estimated the mean penetration depth of the gravitational component of the UP Flux into a Neutron mass; we believe that this is a Universal Constant.

    There are 3 distinct effects of invisible forces at a distance that this field produces: Gravitational ***, Magnetic, and Electric. We hypothesize that the Tau, Muon, and Beta Neutrinos are producing these forces respectively. We live in a sea of Neutrinos, but the Neutrinos are so elusive that we can only detect a few individual Neutrino tracks, in a Cerenkov type detection chamber; but we do see the powerful effect of the Universal Flux in Gravitational, Magnetic and Electric forces. It is also known by the direction of Neutrino tracks in the Super Kamiokonde detector, that Neutrinos traverse the mass of the Earth.
  • Linear and radial acceleration forces are closely related to gravitational forces (in a black box we can not tell them apart).
  • Magnetic and Electric forces are about 10.sup.20 times stronger than gravitational forces for similar size apparatus; Magnetic apparatus appeared to be more expedient to build than an Electrostatic apparatus. Gravitational UPFF Pressure Converters are not practical for Laboratory applications. Since the driving forces are expected to be in the micro Newton range, magnetic thrust bearings are used to support the rotor in the vertical direction.

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

    Renee Descartes (1596-1650) emphatically believed that "the Cosmos is filled with a fluid more dense than matter, yet invisible, and it is in continuous motion" (Theory of Cosmological Impact). Descartes rejected Galileo's Pendulum and Free Fall experimental conclusions, because Galileo "failed to reduce the mathematical laws of moving bodies to their ultimate mechanism".

    Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) had his manuscript of the "Two New Sciences" smuggled to France for publication in 1638. His book substantially laid the initial foundation of kinematics and the dynamics of pendulums and freely falling bodies. Galileo's Free Fall and Pendulum experiments indicated the Principle of Equivalence of inertial and gravitational masses. Nonconformist Galileo also attempted to measure the speed of light, which was "known" to be infinite by the contemporary scientific establishment (including Descartes and Kepler). Galileo used two manually operated shuttered lanterns a few kilometers apart, which of course did not work. Galileo improved the magnification of telescopes from about 3.times. to 30.times., which greatly enhanced astronomical observation capabilities.

    Olaf Roemer (1644-1710) published his work on the speed of light in 1675 by measurements of the shift in the eclipse period of the Jovian moon Io, as the Earth to Jupiter distance varied during several months. His data indicated an Earth orbital diameter transit time for light of 22 minutes; today's accepted value is about 16.6 minutes. This is an excellent value for the sighting equipment and the clocks used in his time. Roemer was using a Galileo type telescope. Roemer's data was generally ignored until the Bradley measurements of 1729 confirmed its validity.

    Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) published the "Principia" in 1687, stating the three Laws of Motion, the Laws of Gravitation,and confirmed by pendulum experiments the Principle of Equivalence. Newton was ridiculed for some of his Laws, by his contemporaries, particularly on the European Continent.

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    George LeSage (1724-1803) published his paper in 1758 on the "Pushing Theory of Gravitation" by "particules ultramundanes" (out of this world particles) "raining down on us", attempting to explain the mechanics of Newtonian Gravitation. In his time it was impossible to prove that particles can traverse the mass of the Earth; today we know that Neutrinos do traverse the Earth's mass, with only minute interactions. Also, there is a serious subliminal "Freundian Aversion" to LeSage's Theory; it may be frightening to realize that billions of particles traverse through our bodies every second, with considerable mass flow rate, from every direction, and that the imbalance of this flux field due to a slight attenuation by the Earth's mass is holding us down with considerable force. LeSage also suggested that the structure of matter is held together by this "out of this world fluid". LeSage's Theory was generally ignored by his contemporaries, and it and Descartes' Theory of Cosmological Impact are rarely known in our time, even by the scientific community.

    Charles Coulomb (1736-1806) with his Torsional Balance in 1784 determined that the force between charged bodies varies as the inverse square of the spacing between the charged bodies. Sir Henry Cavendish (1731-1810) in 1798, using a modified Coulomb Torsional Balance, showed that gravitational forces in space also follow the inverse square law. Ever since then, some scientists theorized that all "invisible forces at a distance" are closely related. Cavendish was also the first to measure the Universal Gravitational Constant "G" in Newton's Equation of Gravitational Forces.

    Albert Michelson (1852-1931) measured the speed of light in the direction, of the Earth's orbital velocity vector (.about.30 km/sec.) and orthogonal to it, which measurement he thought to have had ample accuracy, and found no difference in the speeds. The Michelson-Morley experimental results were published in 1887, indicating that the long theorized Stationary Luminoferrous (light carrying) Ether Field has no effect on the speed of light propagation. Michelson used a reflective optical interferometer of his design to measure the speed of light. James C. Maxwell (1831-1879) was one of the major proponents of a Michelson-Morley type experiment. On the basis of this experiment, the scientific community generally concluded that "therefore no Universal Field of any kind exists" (gravitational, magnetic, nor electric). Eventually, the advocates of the "Principles of Virtual Reality" triumphed. Ironically, Michelson despised this conclusion and clung to his belief to the end of his life in "my beloved Ether, although they tell me that it does not exist". The only valid scientific conclusions that can be drawn from the Michelson-Morley Experiments are that the Universal Ether Field either does not interact with streams of photons (and does not carry light) or that the interaction was beyond the detection capability of the subject instrumentation. The Michelson-Morley Experiments most certainly did not prove that no Universal Field of any kind can exist.

    Hendrik Lorentz (1853-1928) also theorized that a Stationary Ether Field that permeates space and matter exists, and showed mathematically that effects of the Earth's "Ether Wind" on the speed of light are negated by the changes in length of the optical platform due to the "Ether Wind" (Theory of Contraction). A few eminent scientists around the turn of the century believed in the existence of some type of "Universal Ether Field"; among them were: G. G. Stokes, J. H. Poincare, J. Larmor, A. J. Fresnel, G. F. FitzGerald, Lord Kelvin, Lord Raleigh, and J. Mac Culagh.

    Albert Einstein (1879-1955) published his work in Photo Electricity in 1905, expounding the particle (Photon) nature of light. Using his newly developed "General Theory of Relativity", he predicted in 1917 that a light beam traversing in the vicinity of the Sun will be deflected by 1.75 seconds of arc. Sir Arthur Eddington verified Einstein's predictio by measurements at a total solar eclipse in 1919. This prediction has been verified many times since then. Einstein was the first to theorize an anti-gravity like force that is expanding the Universe, keeping the Universe from falling in on itself due to gravitation (Cosmological Constant). Later he re-canted this theory, and said that "this was the greatest blunder of my life". Einstein attempted to write one Unified Field Equation (for Magnetic, Electrostatic, and Gravitational Forces), for the rest of his life without success.

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    Ellis and Wooster (1927) using a very sophisticated calorimeter showed the energy release per Electron or per .beta. emission of radioactive matter is less than 1/2 of the energy of the spectrum. This presented a serious problem to Nuclear Physics.

    Wolfgang Pauli (1900-1958) disclosed his theory in 1930 on the release of a particle he called Neutron for every Electron emitted, to maintain the energy balance of .beta. emission. Pauli's disclosure occurred before Chadwick discovered the Neutron in the nucleus. Pauli postulated that the detection of this particle is extremely difficult due to its extremely small interaction cross section (.sigma..about.10.sup.-15 cm.sup.2). To end the confusion Enrico Fermi renamed Pauli's particle "Neutrino". Clyde L. Cowah Jr. and Frederick Reines succeeded to detect Neutrinos in 1956, using a "very large" tank of hydrogenous scintillator exposed to an "enormous" flux of Neutrinos emitted from fission induced .beta. decays in a nuclear reactor. In spite of this enormous Neutrino flux, less than 1 scintillation per minute was expected.

    The first Nuclear Bombs were exploded in 1945; these events are characterized by the output of huge amounts of Photons, Neutrons, Electro-Magnetic Waves, and X-rays, and very likely other yet unknown, hard to detect particles.

    Binary Neutron stars were discovered in the 1950's; some of these stars are believed to radiate as much Gravity Wave energy as the total radiant energy of our Sun. The existence of Black Holes were also theorized recently. It is generally believed that there is enough compacted Neutron mass at the center of a Black Hole that light (Photon Flux) can not escape. Stephen Hawking believes Black Hole masses can be as small as a few centimeters in diameter; others think it is many kilometers.

    In the 1950's Joseph Weber started work to isolate Gravity Waves by inducing and detecting resonances in "large" elastic masses. caused by Gravity Wave Pressure, from specific sources. Einstein predicted "a small ripple in the gravitational field" from these sources, "which (wave) also travel at the speed of light". Weber's reported results, however, could not be repeated by others. At this time a "huge" Einstein/Michelson type experimental apparatus is being constructed with 2.5 mile long orthogonal tubes to detect Gravity Waves, and to measure the speed of light in vacuum.

    M. Nieto of LANL. and J. D. Anderson of JPL published a paper in 1998, proclaiming that their 18 year study of satellite orbits indicate that the Newtonian gravitational force equation with the Einsteinian correction, needs further correction in the range of +10.sup.-10 Newtons. A corresponding increase of "G" during the 18 year experiment could explain this anomaly.

    Supernovae or exploding stars were observed in 1054 (remnanat is the Crab Nebula), Tycho's Nova in 1572, and Kepler's Nova in 1604. The number of known Supernovae is now over 140. Recently two Supernovae were observed to be "hurling away from each other" near the edge of the detectable Universe, suggesting gravitational repulsion. Supernovae are characterized by the immense output of Photons and Radio waves. S. Woosley of the University of California reported that that bursts of Gamma rays were observed (on Apr. 25, 1998) emitted from a Supernova; "such bursts occur, on the average, once a day in the observable Universe". Radio wave output continues long after the Nova is dark.

    The prevailing opinion of the scientific establishment in our time is, that no humanly comprehensible mechanical model of the Universal Field can exist, only mathematical solutions are possible. Lately a few investigators are re-visiting this belief, since no significant experimental nor analytical progress has been made in this field for decades.

    As we can see, over the centuries an unknown Particle Flux Field has been proposed by a multitude of outstanding scientists to explain "invisible forces at a distance". Only in relatively modem times did we geneally give up the idea (Michelson-Morley Experiments). At the same time our understanding of Gravitation has remained stagnant compared to most other fields of science. We believe that we should re-visit the "unknown" particle idea; and we can already see some new insights as to how the Universe works, based on recent new astronomical observations, that our predecessors did not have. For example Supernovae appear to repel each other, also Supernovae and Black Holes appear to be the major sources and sinks for this "unknown" particle respectively. When Black Holes absorb a sufficient number of these particles they become super critical and explode to become Supernovae. Colliding Galaxies can also become Supernovae of another type (Quasars).

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    DISCUSSION

    The characteristics of the Universe is such that "flux fields" are produced by various particles moving randomly in every direction. Gas molecules form such flux fields, with mean free paths between collisions of various lengths, depending on the gas pressure and other properties of the particular gas. Photon flux fields are produced by a light source in a reflective enclosure, with relatively long mean free paths and with no apparent interaction between Photon streams (light beams). These flux fields are simultaneously convergent/divergent (see FIG. 1). It is proposed that another particle flux field exists in the Universe, similar to the Photon Flux field, except the particles producing it are orders of magnitude smaller in cross section than Photons, and they are many orders of magnitude more energetic than Photons. This flux field penetrates matter and space, with generally small interactions (except at Black Holes and Supernovae), the flux streams are directed in every direction from any point to every other point in the Universe. These "Universal Particles" have some properties much like that of Neutrinos, except that they must have mass and they must occur in flux densities much larger than it is now believed for Neutrinos. The order in this Flux Field is a nearly perfect disorder, which is an order in itself. It is further proposed that all gravitational, inertial, magnetic, electrostatic, and electro-dynamic forces are manifestations of matter interacting with the Universal Particle Flux Field. In the simplest model the Flux Field is the same for all invisible forces at a distance, only the magnitude of the attenuation (or force) is different, depending on the type of matter penetrated, i.e. neutral, charged, or magnetic matter. We suspect that inertial forces are also a manifestation of an accelerating body interacting with the Universal Flux Field, and the Principle of Equivalence of inertial and gravitational masses are a result of this common Universal Flux Field.

    The inventors of the subject device humbly submit that the "invisible forces at a distance" can not occur without a particle interchange! How else can a body of matter "know" that another body of matter is in existence anywhere within light years, and what some of their specific characteristics are respectively? Clusters of Stars (Galaxies) with light years in diameter were observed to revolve around a center point (Black Hole). We do not know most of the properties of this Universal Particle Flux Field; such as mass/masses of these Particles, cross section/sections, mean free path/paths, number of particles per unit volume, the velocity spectrum, the oscillation frequency spectrum of a stream of Particles, and how many species of Particles are involved. All we know is an average value of the Universal Gravitational Constant "G" to only 3 significant figures, and that the mean free path of these Particles in vacuum, must be measured in millions of light years, from astronomical observations of Galaxies.

    When these Universal Particles, henceforth called "Unitons", interact with neutral matter (non magnetic and uncharged) they are called "Gravitons". Gravitons exert a force on the nuclear structure of the atom at impact. The Graviton streams or flux apply force on a body; the attenuation of the stream and the force produced are approximately proportional to the mass density and the volume traversed (total mass). Two masses appear to attract each other by the shadowing of the graviton flux produced on each mass, by the other mass respectively.

    We have expressed this "Uniton Flux Field" (UFF) mathematically as a power series. The first term is the Newtonian Field; it implies a linear attenuation as a function of masses. The subsequent higher order terms define the non linear attenuation of the UFF in matter (see Detailed Description). When these particles (Unitons) traverse matter made up of magnetic dipoles or harged bodies, the Uniton Flux attenuation, hence the force exerted on these bodies, are many orders of magnitude larger than for a neutral mass. For the above reasons it appears that a magnetic or electrostatic device would be much more cost effective to build, compared to a gravitational device, to experimentally prove the Brainard-Ney Uniton Flux Field Theory.

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    All of the above forces have a similar field distribution for similar geometry's such as in the vicinity of a point, a wire, or a plate. The magnetic and electrostatic forces, however, are orders of magnitude larger than gravitational forces on a laboratory scale. For example: comparing a 1 kg mass to a 1 coulomb charge, the electrostatic forces are about 20 orders of magnitude larger than the gravitational forces. For the purposes of the "Shaded Rotor Device", however, it is inconsequential if the Unitons causing gravitation, magnetic or electric forces are all of the same species, or three different ones. If there were three different Universal Particles, the theory would be much more difficult to understand. If indeed the same specie of particles cause all force field phenomena, "strong" magnetic or electrostatic fields should produce observable gravitational effects. Recently, there have been some publications indicating such observations.

    To explain repulsion between like charges or like magnetic poles, the Upiton streams traversing it are not only attenuated, but are also 2/3 fractionally polarized. The result is that the polarized Uniton streams from one charged body exert a thrust on another similarly charged body. These polarized Uniton streams suffer less attenuation than un-polarized streams traversing another oppositely charged body. The magnetic phenomena is characterized by a similar mechanism.

    Assuming that this Uniton Flux Field exists, one should be able to extract slight amounts of energy, on a laboratory scale, by various devices to prove the UFF Theory. One device is a shaded rotor apparatus, where a low friction rotor is totally enclosed in a UFF attenuating shield, except a narrow slit directed at the rotor rim is provided. Neutral matter may be used for the shade and the rotor; however, magnetic or electrostatic devices are much more cost effective to build. Slender magnetic bars and a magnetic rotor are used in the subject device, for reasons of expediency. In other devices disclosed herein electro-staticly charged stators and rotors are used.

    We have shown that the mean penetration depth "L.sub.0 " of the UFF in compacted Neutrons, multiplied with a totally compacted Neutron density ".rho..sub.0 " is in the exponent of the exponential attenuation which we represent as a power series expansion for a neutral mass. We believe that it is a Universal Constant, but its value is yet unknown, although we have estimated its value (see Detailed Description). We expect that the subject device will determine this value, from the torque on the rotor and from other known parameters of the device.

    We propose that the relatively uniform gravitational field in our Solar System is brought about by the dispersion of Supernovae (major source of Uniton Flux) and a dispersion of Black Holes (major sink of the Uniton Flux). The dispersion (see FIG. 5) is brought about by the Supernovae which tend to push away all other masses by their high energy divergent Uniton Flux. In addition an equilibrium is reached at some Flux level between the source and sink of the Uniton Flux, since the rate of the Uniton flux absorption by the Black Holes is a direct function of the Flux density. This relatively stable equilibrium is indicated by the stability of the Universal Gravitational Constant "G", in our Solar System. Moreover, new Black Holes are constantly being formed by Uniton mass and heat energy is being continuously absorbed by large celestial bodies, and they eventually become super-critical and explode into Supernovae. S. Woosley of the University of California (at Santa Cruz) stated that a Supernova emitting Gamma rays was observed on Apr. 25, 1998, and such emissions were observed daily by satellites for the last 25 years but until now the source was an enigma. This indicates that there should be ample Uniton Flux produced in the Greater Universe to provide a relativel uniform Universal Flux Field in vast regions of the Detectable Universe.

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    Supernovae are disappearing because they are highly transient in nature compared to the age of the Universe. Although, Supernovae and Black Holes are the major sources and sinks of the Uniton Flux in the Universe, of course, all stars and probably all nuclear reactions contribute to the generation of the Uniton Flux Field, and all masses adsorb some of the Uniton Flux. In this way, relatively uniform Uniton Flux Fields are formed over vast regions of space, inside and outside of our detectable Universe. At this time there are about 140 known Supernovae in our Detectable Universe.

    Our Universe is defined as the boundary formed by faintest electromagnetic images that our best instruments can resolve. Our Detectable Universe expands as our instrumentation sensitivity improves. It has "expanded" by about 7 billion light years in the last few years. We are near the center of Our Universe only because our position and visibility substantially defines the borders of Our Universe. The "single" Universe attitude conforms to the historical precedent: "if we can not see it or detect it, it can not possibly exist"."Our Own Single Big Bang" theory has the semblance of the "Geocentric Solar System" concept. There must be a large array of Supernovae and Black Holes beyond our Detectable Universe, to produce a relatively uniform Uniton Flux Field, in Our Universe.

    Einstein was the first one to propose that there has to be a gravitational repulsive force in the Universe so that it would not fall back on itself due to gravitational attraction. He later recanted this theory, and said that "this was the greatest blunder of my life". It now appears from astronomical observations, that two Supernovae (exploding stars) are hurling away from each other, near the edge of the visible Universe, at a much faster rate than could be expected from the "Theory of the Expanding Universe".We believe that the Supernovae are repelling each other, by emitting Uniton Flux toward each other. If the Supernova is ejecting Unitons at a higher rate than its mass is absorbing the Universal Uniton Flux, a net repulsive field would exist in the vicinity around such Supernova. As the distance from the Supernova is increased, the net repulsive force drops substantially as the inverse square of the distance. At a sufficient distance from the Supernova, the nominal UPF Field dominates. This hypothesis explains the "Missing Mass Enigma" at the edge of our detectable Universe. The Ultimate Universal Conservation Law may very well be the conservation of Unitons.

    It is noted that nuclear bomb explosions are associated with considerable Photon, X-ray, and Electro/Magnetic Wave emissions. We believe that the "E/M Wave" emissions indicate Uniton emissions, but gravitational effects associated with the emissions of Uniton Flux is expected to be many orders of magnitude lower in detection level than the electromagnetic effect (.about.10.sup.-20), and hence it would be extremely difficult to resolve.

    The Universal Gravitational "Constant" does not appear to be constant, by the best data obtained from the latest and most sophisticated instruments. It varies by about 1 part in 1000, which makes it about the least accurately known Physical Constant in contemporary physics. A paper has been written by an MIT scientist, proposing that all of the measurements are indeed correct, and "G" is direction variable. The subject measurements were made at various locations on Earth; the sensitive axes were not coordinated, and hence, these instruments scanned various regions of the Universe as the Earth turned. The attenuation of the Uniton Flux Field by intervening matter in the Universe must also be considered.

    We further propose that "G" is also time variable, and a rapid magnitude and direction variation exists when Supernovae occur in the vicinity . This could explain the demise of large heavy creatures (Dinosaurs) and not the reatively small light ones. If the Universal "G" hence "g" of the Earth has increased by a few percent, and since weight is a function of the linear dimensions cubed, while stresses are a function of the linear dimensions squared. It can be seen that the curves diverge rapidly as the linear size is increased, and the critical structural support members of "large" bodies will fail in stress as the "G" is increased, sooner than that of relatively "small" bodies. Conversely, according to the most accepted hypothesis of the "sudden" demise of Dinosaurs, consider this: if the Sun were blocked out for a few years by dust from a large Meteorite impact, there would have been no vegetation to maintain the food chain for any of the critters, large or small! Moreover it has been calculated that the Pterodactyl (Jurassic/Mesozoic flyer) could not fly under the present conditions on Earth. A significantly lower "G" in the above period would explain this enigma. Also, the "g" of the Earth might have increased significantly due to the adsorption of Uniton mass, during the existence of Dinosaurs (several hundred million years). Recent findings indicate that the Dinosaurs started dying out millions of years before the famous "Cataclismic Giant Meteorite Impact", and some Dinosaurs existed several million years after it.

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    RU Адрон #05.08.2002 16:36
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    A non uniform or highly directional increase of "G" occurs due to a Supernova relatively "close" to the Solar System, relative to the dispersion of Supernovae. In this case the entire Solar System is accelerated in unison in the direction away from this Supernova. The Earth orbit around the Sun would not change due to a uniform increase of "G", due to the Principle of Equivalence. The inertial resistive forces on the Sun and on the Planets are probably produced by crossing the perpendicular components of the Universal Flux Field; the details of this phenomena is not understood.

    It has been proposed by a number of investigators, that in order to explain the existence of Galaxies near the outer edges of our Universe, significant amount of mass must be present just outside of the visible Universe: the "Missing Mass Theory". The existence of a multitude of other Universes bordering "our own detectable Universe", would provide the missing mass. The rotation and flatness of the Galaxies can also be explained by self shading of the UFF. Slight asymmetries in mass will accentuate these asymmetries by the effects of shadowing.

    One stated objection to the existence of the proposed Uniton Flux Field is that allegedly the sensitivity of the Earth's "g" measuring instrumentation is such, that it would pick up a 12 hour maximum to minimum variation, as the Earth rotates and the sensitive axis of the instrumentation is rotated 180 degrees relative to the Earth's orbital velocity vector around the Sun, (.about.30 km/sec). Although the Uniton Flux itself may travel at the speed of light, the vector sum of the velocities of the total Flux Field is substantially zero. So that sufficiently sensitive instrumentation should pick up the ±30 km/sec variation in a 12 hour period. This variation has never been observed and published in the literature, as far as we know.

    Momentum transfer by the attenuating flux due to internal collisions produces force on a mass. For a single mass in the Uniton Flux Field, however, there is no net force since the sum of the forces is zero and hence no mechanical energy is extracted from this configuration. Energy of course can be extracted temporarily, from a two mass system if they are spaced apart, so that they can do work as they are being pushed together by the UFF. Energy may be extracted continuously from the UFF, if a proper impedance configuration is utilized, such as our Shaded Rotor device. It may be a neutral mass or gravitational device, which has been calculated to be too large for a laboratory apparatus; or it may be a magnetic or electrostatic device, which are suitable for laboratory use. In addition to momentum transfers of the flux field to the mass, heat is also generated. This UFF heating of the interior of the Earth may contribute to keeping the core temperature substantially constant.

    It is of interest to note that in 1905 Einstein calculated the deflection of a light beam (Photon Flux) grazing the surface of the Sun, using Huygens' light wave equation. His result was 0.83 seconds of arc. We calculated the deflection of the path of a mass at the speed of light grazing the surface of the Sun to be 0.86 seconds of arc, using pure Newtonian mechanics. Einstein later calculated this deflection using his General Theory of Relativity, and predicted a value of 1.75 seconds of arc. The Eddington measurements of 1919 indicated a value of 1.7 seconds of arc (.about.2.times. of the above values), this value has been subsequently confirmed many times. We have discussed our idea that Unitons explain Gravity and Electro-Magnetic fields; since Light (Photon flux) consist of Electro-Magnetic fields an interaction is not surprising.

    A recent study of 3 satellites (Pioneer 10 & 11, and Ulysses) in Solar orbit over an 18 year period, by M. Nieto ofLANL. and J. D. Anderson of JPL., indicated an anomaly in their actual positions and the calculated positions by the Newtonian Equation with Einsteinian corrections, in the parts per 10.sup.10 range. It appears that the Sun is "tugging" at these satellites more than expected. Newton's Equation of gravitation is a first order equation, it implies a linear attenuation of Graviton Flux traversing matter. Our second order (negative) term, results in a lower force than that of the Newton's Equation of gravitational force. Orbiting satellites integrate the deviation from actual to calculated positions over a time period, this is the most sensitive method of testing Newton's Equations and the Principle of Equivalence. As far as we know, the Universal Gravitational Constant is not known out to 10 digits, and it appears to be direction and time variable after the 3.sup.rd digit.

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    RU Адрон #05.08.2002 16:36
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    Photon beams are sensitive to absorption and are scattered by Cosmic dust, and this causes a "red shift" in addition to the possible Doppler shift to red. We believe that the Uniton Flux is substantially un-affected by Cosmic dust. A lower "G" should also cause a "red shift", as it will be shown later in this paper. Also it is stipulated that the Uniton Flux Uniton Flux is much more energetic than the Photon Flux that we normally encounter, since gravitational, electrostatic, and magnetic forces are many orders of magnitude greater than the force produced by light pressure in the Universe. For these reasons the is expected to traverse many orders of magnitude greater distances than Photon Flux. There are localized perturbations in the Uniton Flux Field, due to the variation in Uniton Flux attenuation in parallel and in series modes of traverse of masses, as indicated in FIG. 7. Binary Neutron Stars would attenuate the Universal Uniton Flux Field accordingly. We are detecting this variation, as they rotate around each other, as modulated Electro-Magnetic Waves; Gravity Waves would be extremely difficult to detect directly since their relative energy level is about 10.sup.-20 that of electromagnetic waves. Since Neutron Stars are so tremendously massive, even the second order effects would be quite considerable. Of course, in the vicinity of Supernovae and Black Holes there are tremendous gradients in the Uniton Flux Field, but by in large at sufficient distance from these sources and sinks, the average "G" is quite constant in every direction. The key to understanding the Grand Universe is not the Light and Radio Flux Field alone, rather it is in conjunction with the Uniton Flux Field!

    A number of similar properties indicate that the Neutrino may be the Uniton Flux Particle, however we only detect a very few Neutrinos in the Cerenkov Detectors compared to what should be expected if the Neutrino Flux and the Uniton Flux were one and the same. There are a number of hypotheses in the literature why the Cerenkov Neutron Detector appears to be so notoriously inefficient to detect Neutrinos. One textbook hypothesis is this: if a Neutrino collides with an anti-Neutrino in the detection chamber, the event would take place at a point within the media in the detection chamber where the Cerenkov Light can be produced. Collision of Neutrinos with anti-Neutrinos is expected to be an extremely rare occurrence. Another scenario is that normally the Neutrino impact forces on an orbiting (H.sub.2) Electron are relatively uniform, with a net force vector directed toward the Nucleus, due to flux attenuation by the Nucleus. At some rare instances, due to small sample statistics, several highly energetic Neutrino Flux streams can combine with vector sums in the tangential direction, this can momentarily shift the radial force vector significantly and dislodge the Electron from orbit, and hence a light flash is produced. Yet another scenario is that Neutrino to Neutrino collisions will produce Cerenkov Light, and this would again be an extremely rare event, considering the estimated cross section of the Neutrino of about 10.sup.-45 cm.sup.2. For comparison the Thompson free Electron cross section is 6.65.times.10.sup.-25 cm.sup.2. We also know that the mean free path of the Unitons must be measured in Galactic dimensions, so that a collision of Neutrinos in a relatively miniscule chamber must be relatively rare, even at "extremely high" Neutrino volumetric densities. The water chamber Cerenkov Detector is not sensitive to Tau Neutrinos at all, only heavy water (Deuterium Oxide) filled Cerenkov Chambers will detect Tau Neutrinos. The Tau Neutrino Flux energy coupling to the plain water H.sub.2 Electron may be too low todislodge an Electron. In the first 18 months of operation the Super Kamiokande chamber detected only about 5 useful Beta and Muon Cerenkov Light Cones entirely contained within the chamber, per day. It is also noted that there is no preferred orientation of the Cerenkov Light Cone in any of the operating chambers around the Earth, except in the direction of the Sun, as far as we know.

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    RU Адрон #05.08.2002 16:36
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    In order to determine if the Neutrino Flux can be the Uniton Flux, the following experiment may be performed: Use a Cavendish type torsional pendulum (see FIG. 15), with one of the masses exposed at close range to an intense flux density Beta/Neutrino source (from a nuclear reactor), with a Beta shield between the source and the masses. A similar experiment can be used with a Coulomb type Torsional Balance, with a highly charged sphere on one end of the rotatable beam, exposed at close range to the intense source of Neutrino Flux. The single charged sphere should preferably be of a hollow thin wall metallic construction, with polished outside surfaces. Enclosure into an evacuated chamber is ideal for eliminating forces on the pendulum due to air currents, the vacuum chamber will also greatly improve the voltage "hold-off" capability of the electrical insulation. All components should be made of non-magnetic materials in order to eliminate interactions with the magnetic field of the Earth. Optical window ports are provided for the laser beam entrance and exit region. Vibration isolation spring/mass/damper system should be used at the suspension point of the filament. The force on the charged sphere due to the "mirror image charge" on the Beta shield can be negated by the proper bias voltage on the Beta shield, before the Beta/Neutrino source is activated. It is possible that the interaction cross section of the Neutrino is many orders of magnitude larger traversing a charged mass compared to a neutral mass. If sufficient momentum transfer takes place to indicate a credible deflection of the instrument, then it is indeed possible that the Neutrino is the Universal Particle.

    These devices are similar to the Shaded Rotor devices (pivoted rotors could also be used in these experiments), where we are shading the natural background of particles on one side of the rotor. Instead we are using a man made source of particles to irradiate a mass on one side of an ultra sensitive Torsional Balance, to overcome the natural balanced background.

    The possibility that the three types of Universal Neutrino Flux Fields namely: Beta, Muon, and Tau, are identical to Universal Electrostatic, Magnetic, and Gravitational Force Fields respectively, must not be overlooked. The Beta Neutrino is associated with an Electron emission, so that it may be responsible for Electric Fields. The Tau Neutrino appears to be the least energetic of the three types of Neutrinos, so that it may be responsible for the least energetic of the three Force Fields, namely the Gravitational Fields. By the process of elimination the Muon Neutrino should be responsible for the Magnetic Fields.

    In order to determine if the Beta Neutrino will not have a momentum transfer to a magnet larger than what is expected for a neutral mass (only the Muon Neutrino has this ability, according to the above "Theory of 3 Independent Force Fields"), the Torsional Balance is provided with a bar magnet (see FIG. 16). The same non magnetic chamber used for the electrostatic experiment, may be used for this magnetic experiment. The bar magnet preferably should be of the "high-tech" Rear Earth type with relatively high Uniton Flux impedance to weight ratio.

    The Universal Particle Flux Theory may provide a physical model for Quantum Mechanics. On the atomic scale we expect a fluctuation of the particle (quanta) stream of the Universal Flux Field, but on a larger scale, like the Solar System, these fluctuations average out so that they are not detectable. The electrons orbiting the Nucleus smear out like a cloud due to the fluctuating field. The orbits would become bands much like what we believe occurs as described by quantum mechnics models. This leads to the conclusion that at higher or lower Uniton Flux Fields or "G" Fields (many light years away) we could have smaller or larger volume for the Elements respectively, and these "different" Elements are expected to have different properties, than those in our Uniton Flux Level. These "different" Elements could play a role in the well known "Red Shift Theory" of Star Light; the Bohr Model of the Atomic Structure indicates that at lower Electric Fields (lower Uniton Flux), the electron orbital energy levels decrease and the light output shifts toward the red. This line of thinking inevitably leads us to the conclusion that the volume of matter is a function of the magnitude of the "G" Field it is immersed in! This indicates a larger Earth diameter at the hypothetical lower "G", during the existence of Dinosaurs, which reduced the "g" further on the Earth's surface, due to the larger distance from the center.

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    RU Адрон #05.08.2002 16:36
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    We realize that this line of thinking would totally change our understanding of the mechanics of the Universe.

    The scientific community should place significant effort on measuring the Uniton Mass Flow Rate per Unit Area in one direction along one Axis (at a time), and measure the Velocity Spectrum of the 3 Neutrino Flux Streams.

    MATHEMATICAL TREATISE

    The mathematical derivation of how the random Uniton Flux Field can produce gravitational, magnetic, and electrostatic forces is discussed below. For gravitational forces, it is proposed that the force on a mass is determined by the absorption and scatter of this particle flux as it traverses through that mass from every direction; and a net force is produced when there is an imbalance of the particle flux impinging on the mass. This imbalance is generally due to the presence of another mass "shadowing" the first mass by particle flux attenuation. A gradient of the Uniton Flux Field on a universal scale should also generate a force on stars, and perhaps explain the expanding Universe.

    In addition to deriving the Newtonian Gravitational Theory, the derivation based on the Uniton Flux Field Theory results in certain subtleties that are not present in the Newtonian Theory. These second order effects are the reasons that a mass Shaded Rotor device will work, and the magnitude of these effects can be estimated. The same second order effects also explains the rotation of a magnetic or electrostatic "Shaded Rotor".

    Uniton stream attenuation within a mass can be defined as e (-.rho.L/.rho..sub.0 L.sub.0), where .rho.=density of the mass, L=path length that the particles traverse in the mass, and .rho..sub.0 L.sub.0 is the Characteristic Attenuation Constant. When .rho.L=.rho..sub.0 L.sub.0, the attenuation is 1/e. It appears that .rho..sub.0 L.sub.0 must be quite large and is nearly equal to the density of a neutron at 10.sup.15 grams/cm.sup.3 (the greatest density we know) times the mean penetration length L.sub.0 =1 km (several units of L.sub.0 is the estimated radius of a Black Hole which we believe completely absorbs the Uniton Flux traversing it); therefore .rho..sub.0 L.sub.0 must be on the order of 10.sup.20 grams/cm.sup.2. In the central region of a large enough neutron mass, where the Uniton Flux Field is completely absorbed, the Universal Gravitational Constant "G" is zero, and the so called "gravitational attraction" ceases to exist. However, the pressure developed by the outer layer neutrons interacting with the Uniton Flux Field holds the inner core of neutrons together. There is a maximum magnitude of gravitational force in the Universe, which is a function of the magnitude of the Uniton Flux Field, and the maximum gravitational force is independent of the magnitude of the mass density.

    In order to show the derivation of the Uniton Flux Field Theory, a simple example is shown (see FIG. 8). Two parallel plates are shown, with masses m.sub.1 and m.sub.2, areas A.sub.1 and A.sub.2 densities .rho..sub.1 and .rho..sub.2, and thickness .delta..sub.1 and .delta..sub.2 respectively, with spacing R between them: ##EQU1##

    where ##EQU2##

    is the absorption of the Uniton Flux in m.sub.1, ##EQU3##

    is the attenuation in m.sub.2,

    d.OMEGA. is the differential solid angle from particles traversing m.sub.2 onto the surface area of m.sub.1 facing m.sub.2 in the direction of the particle flux,

    dA.sub.1 is the differential surface area of m.sub.1, facing m.sub.2 (The vector direction is normal to the surface),

    a.sub..OMEGA. is the unit vector in the direction of d.OMEGA., the direction of the particle flux, and R is the distance between the centers of mass of m.sub.1 and m.sub.2.

    The subtracted term is from a virtual m.sub.2, at a position--R from m.sub.1, where there is no attenuation by m.sub.2. In this way the balance of the particle flux through m.sub.1 is taken into account. It is assumed that, for the moment, the Uniton Flux is impinging upon m.sub.1 uniformly in all directions, except for those attenuatd by traversing through m.sub.2.

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    RU Адрон #05.08.2002 16:36
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    The force equation can then be rewritten as: ##EQU4## ##EQU5##

    can be expanded into the following series: ##EQU6##

    Because .rho..sub.0 L.sub.0 is so large, the first order term in the product of these expansions is a very good approximation of the exact value, i.e., ##EQU7##

    The Force Equation for the first order term then becomes (from Equation 1): ##EQU8##

    If we assume R>>A.sub.n +L >>.delta..sub.n where n=1 and 2, then the Force Equation becomes: ##EQU9##

    This is exactly Newton's Law, where the Universal Gravitational Constant is:

    G=k/(.rho..sub.0 L.sub.0).sup.2 =6.67.times.10.sup.-8 dyn cm.sup.2 /gram.sup.2, =and

    k=6.67.times.10.sup.32 dyn/cm.sup.2, since .rho..sub.0 L.sub.0 =10.sup.20 gram/cm.sup.2.

    One can think of "k" as the maximum pressure obtainable by the Uniton Flux Field, which is also capable of forming "Neutron stars" by compressing Neutrons to a closed packed structure. The Uniton Flux streams are completely absorbed in a few path lengths (L.sub.0) of traverse in the Neutron mass of a Neutron star, and the flux streams directed toward the central region do not exit it. This means that the mass will eventually increase to a "Black Hole" mass. One can also think of "k" as the product of the Uniton flux density and momentum.

    The second order force term in the product of the two series expansion is: ##EQU10##

    The effect of this secondary term is to slightly reduce the force from the first order term, resulting in a slightly less Uniton Flux attenuation or slightly more Uniton Flux transmission. If .delta..sub.2 of m.sub.2 was very large (hundreds of kilometers), where the solid angle is substantially constant (i.e. the solid geometry of m.sub.2 is a frustum), then the second order term can become significant enough to measure. If the axis of this long mass was directed off axis to mass.sub.1, then a torque would be applied to m.sub.1. The .delta..sub.2.sup.2 term makes the force highly directional. This second order term could easily explain the spirals and the rotation of Galaxies. Also, the greater force in the short axis or the weaker force in the long axis of Galaxies could explain why they are flat.

    It appears that the only difference between electric, magnetic, and gravitational forces is the difference in the characteristic attenuation factors of the Unitons traversing the specific media. It was shown that .rho..sub.0 L .sub.0 for gravity is in the units of gram/cm.sup.2. But for magnetics .rho..sub.0 L.sub.0 has the units of Maxwell/cm.sup.2, and for electrostatics the units are in statcoulomb/cm.sup.2. It was shown earlier for gravity k/(.rho..sub.0 L.sub.0).sup.2 =G where k=6.67.times.10.sup.32 dynes/cm.sup.2, and .rho..sub.0 L.sub.0 =10.sup.20 gram/cm.sup.2. For magnetics or electrostatics k/(.rho..sub.0 L.sub.0).sup.2 =1 in cgs. units. That means for magnetics .rho..sub.0 L.sub.0 =2.6.times.10.sup.16 Maxwells/cm.sup.2, and for electrostatics .rho..sub.0 L.sub.0 =2.6.times.10.sup.16 statcoulomb/cm.sup.2. Of course "k" is unchanged because it is a characteristics of the Uniton Flux Field.

    One can now estimate the force generated by the Uniton Flux Field on a Magnetic Shaded Rotor device in realistic laboratory dimensions. Drawing of the proposed device is given in FIG. 9 and FIG. 10.

    The second order term becomes: ##EQU11##

    The second part of the second order term (see Equation 3) is much smaller and hence it is ignored. Since 4 kilogauss (4 kilomaxwell/cm.sup.2) permanent magnets are readily available; a realistic value for Equation 4 is:

    5 dynes of force or 5 milligrams of force@ g=981 cm/sec.sup.2.

    5 dynes of force can be measured and, hence the Magnetic Shaded Rotor Device can be used to verify the Uniton Flux Field Theory.

    An electric dynamometer may be mounted concentric on the rotor shaft and the output torque measured, from which .rho..sub.0 L.sub.0 can be calculated in conjunction with the known machine parameters.

    It is interesting to note that the calculated escape velocity, using classical mechnics, is greater than c from a spherical body of mass density .rho..sub.0 =10.sup.15 gm/cm.sup.3 (closed packed neutron structure) and a radius of a few L.sub.0 (.about.1 km) units; and we believe Unitons can not escape from such a body if their velocity is "c" or less. A spherical body of this mass becomes a Uniton sink (Black Hole), and its mass will increase continuously until it becomes a Supernova.

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    RU Адрон #05.08.2002 16:36
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    DRAWINGS

    FIG. 1. Is a schematic diagram of a Universal Particle Flux Field (Uniton Flux Field) with arbitrary 60.degree. flux grid lines, and with a single spherical impedance, indicating singly attenuated Flux Lines. Each intersection represents schematically a spherical solid angle converging/diverging Uniton Flux trajectories, in 4 dimensions (spatial and time).

    FIG. 2. Is a schematic diagram of a Uniton Flux Field with arbitrary 60.degree. flux grid lines, and with two spherical impedances, indicating singly and doubly attenuated Flux Lines. Each intersection represents schematically a spherical solid angle converging/diverging UP Flux trajectories, in 4 dimensions (spatial and time).

    FIG. 3. Is a schematic diagram of the theoretical Shaded Rotor Uniton Flux Pressure Converter device, in an arbitrary 60.degree. flux grid. Each intersection represents schematically a spherical solid angle converging/diverging Uniton Flux trajectory, in 4 dimensions (spatial and time).

    FIG. 4. Is a schematic diagram of the (spherical solid angle) Uniton Flux emanating from a Supernova, superimposed on the Universal Uniton Flux Field.

    FIG. 5. Is a schematic diagram of Supernovae and Black Holes Dispersion in a rectangular array (purely for illustrative purposes) in one plane, with the detectable border of "our" Universe indicated in an oblique planar section.

    FIG. 6. Is a schematic diagram of the Earth's gravitational field vector "n" at the surface, resulting from the vector sum of "N" and "N.sub.E ", the vertical components of the Uniton Flux Field density in the vertical direction.

    FIG. 7. Is a schematic diagram indicating characteristic elemental attenuation of the Uniton Flux traversing 2 equal elemental volumes with equal impedances 2 ".DELTA.V.sub.S " in series, and 2 ".DELTA.V.sub.P " in parallel.

    FIG. 8. Is a schematic diagram of two adjacent parallel plates, with conventional symbols referred to in the Detailed Description.

    FIG. 9. Is the top view of the Magnetic Shaded Rotor Uniton Flux Pressure Converter.

    FIG. 10. Is an enlarged partial cross sectional elevational view of the Magnetic Shaded Rotor Uniton Flux Pressure Converter shown in FIG. 9.

    FIG. 11. Is a top view of the Electrostatic Shaded Rotor Uniton Flux Pressure Converter, with thin tangential stationary shading plates.

    FIG. 12. Is an elevational view of the Electrostatic Shaded Rotor Uniton Flux Pressure Converter, with thin tangential stationary shading plates.

    FIG. 13. Is a top view of the Electrostatic Shaded Rotor Uniton Flux Pressure Converter, with trapezoidal stationary shading plates of long flux impedance paths.

    FIG. 14. Is an elevational view of the Electrostatic Shaded Rotor Uniton Flux Pressure Converter, with trapezoidal stationary shading plates of long flux impedance paths.

    FIG. 15 Is a schematic isometric view of a modified Coulomb Torsional Balance set up to measure Neutrino Flux Pressure, from a nuclear fission driven high intensity Beta/Neutrino Source.

    DETAILED DESCRIPTION

    A schematic diagram of the proposed field configuration, with one spherical impedance, is shown in FIG. 1. A typical 60 degree grid is shown, with un-attenuated particle Flux Lines 1 (solid lines), and with singly attenuated Flux Lines 2 (dashed lines), which have traversed impeding body 6. Flux lines intersect at typical Grid Intersections 4. The actual particle flux field is in all four dimensions: X,Y,Z, and Time. At typical Grid Intersections 4, the Universal Particle Flux or Uniton Flux traverses substantially to and from every point in the Universe in four dimensional space (convergent/divergent field). A typical schematic spherical solid angle Convergent/Divergent Point 5 is shown at a typical Grid Intersection 4. The mean free path of the Universal Particle (Uniton), which from astronomical observations of gravitation between celestial bodies, appears to be measured in millions of light years in vacuum. With one impedane the flux field is substantially constant from all directions on Impeding Body 6, so that no net force is produced on it.

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    A flux field with two Impeding Bodies 6 and 7 is shown in FIG. 2. Full or Un-attenuated Flux 1 is impinging on both Impeding Bodies 6 and 7 from all directions except in directions facing each other. Typical singly attenuated flux lines between Impeding Bodies 6 and 7 are Flux Lines 2 and 2' (long dashed lines). Doubly attenuated Flux Lines 3 (short dashed lines) leaving the Impeding Bodies 6 and 7 respectively, have been attenuated by both Impeding Bodies 6 and 7. Thrust force results between these two bodies, resulting in accelerating these Impeding Bodies 6 and 7 toward each other because Flux Lines 2 and 2' are less dense than Flux Lines 1. For two bodies rotating around each other, like in the case of binary stars, we can expect the attenuated flux to vary relative to a fixed point; increased flux in the direction of alignment of the bodies, and nominal flux in all other directions. We believe that some of the electromagnetic and gravity flux signals emitted by binary stars are also produced in this manner.

    We believe that the attenuation of the flux, which generates the force or thrust is not linear within the impeding body, but exponential. The attenuation can be expressed exactly in a power series of infinite order. The signs of the higher order or non linear terms alternate. The sign of the first order or linear attenuation term is of course positive. The second order or compound attenuation term is negative, i.e. it reduces the attenuated flux (by a relatively small amount). The third order or cubic effect is positive. The second order term is orders of magnitude smaller than the first order term, the third order term is orders of magnitude smaller than the second order term, and so on.

    Newton's Laws of Gravitation substantially conforms to the above described Uniton Flux Field: Every mass "attracts" every other mass in the Universe. The force is a function of the inverse square of the spacing between masses. The force between masses is (substantially) directly proportional to the magnitude of the masses. The Newtonian Gravitational Force Equation can be derived by assuming that the absolute value of the flux decreases linearly through differential elements of the mass. However, for an exponential decay that typically occurs in nature, the "percentage" of the flux decreases linearly. In our exponential expansion, the first order term corresponds to Newton's Equation; but additional terms are required to define the exponential decay in matter. Even on a relatively low mass planet like the Earth, the relatively slight attenuation of the Uniton Flux traversing it results in significant gravitational forces on much smaller masses on the surface of the planet. One can begin to comprehend the immense density and energy content of this Uniton Flux Field.

    We are designing and fabricating a device that is driven by the second order Uniton Flux attenuation effect. A schematic diagram is shown in FIG. 3. The principle of operation can probably best be understood by assuming for the moment, that Shading Ring 9 and Rotor 10 are made of materials that absorbs the Uniton Flux Field completely in a few centimeters of traverse. The centerline of Slot 12 in Shading Ring 9 is aligned slightly within the circumference of Rotor 10. Slot 12 allows some of the flux to impinge onto the periphery of Rotor 10 un-impeded. It is seen that under the previously assumed boundary conditions, Rotor 10 will rotate due to the nearly unidirectional impact of the Uniton Flux upon the periphery of Rotor 10. With a Shading Ring 9 and Rotor 10 of less attenuating material which is absorbing/scattering say only half of the flux, Rotor 10 should still rotate at a lower torque input. If we now consider realistic Uniton Flux attenuating materials, that attenuate only parts per 10.sup.12 /cm or less of the flux, Rotor 10 should still rotate if the frictional and minimum energy-well parameters tending to stall Roto 10, are small enough. The minimum energy conditions are generated by axial miss-alignments, non uniform fields at Rotor 10, and insufficient Rotor balance. Shading Ring 9 can be made of a magnetic material enclosing Rotor 10, which is also made of a magnetic material. Shading Ring 9 may also be made of an insulator which is electro-statically charged, and it encloses Rotor 10 which in this case is also made of a charged insulator. Shading Ring 9 and Rotor 10 made of a neutral mass is not considered practical on a Laboratory scale.

    [ слишком длинный топик - автонарезка ]
     
    RU Адрон #05.08.2002 16:39
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    Адрон

    втянувшийся
    A flux field with two Impeding Bodies 6 and 7 is shown in FIG. 2. Full or Un-attenuated Flux 1 is impinging on both Impeding Bodies 6 and 7 from all directions except in directions facing each other. Typical singly attenuated flux lines between Impeding Bodies 6 and 7 are Flux Lines 2 and 2' (long dashed lines). Doubly attenuated Flux Lines 3 (short dashed lines) leaving the Impeding Bodies 6 and 7 respectively, have been attenuated by both Impeding Bodies 6 and 7. Thrust force results between these two bodies, resulting in accelerating these Impeding Bodies 6 and 7 toward each other because Flux Lines 2 and 2' are less dense than Flux Lines 1. For two bodies rotating around each other, like in the case of binary stars, we can expect the attenuated flux to vary relative to a fixed point; increased flux in the direction of alignment of the bodies, and nominal flux in all other directions. We believe that some of the electromagnetic and gravity flux signals emitted by binary stars are also produced in this manner.

    We believe that the attenuation of the flux, which generates the force or thrust is not linear within the impeding body, but exponential. The attenuation can be expressed exactly in a power series of infinite order. The signs of the higher order or non linear terms alternate. The sign of the first order or linear attenuation term is of course positive. The second order or compound attenuation term is negative, i.e. it reduces the attenuated flux (by a relatively small amount). The third order or cubic effect is positive. The second order term is orders of magnitude smaller than the first order term, the third order term is orders of magnitude smaller than the second order term, and so on.

    Newton's Laws of Gravitation substantially conforms to the above described Uniton Flux Field: Every mass "attracts" every other mass in the Universe. The force is a function of the inverse square of the spacing between masses. The force between masses is (substantially) directly proportional to the magnitude of the masses. The Newtonian Gravitational Force Equation can be derived by assuming that the absolute value of the flux decreases linearly through differential elements of the mass. However, for an exponential decay tat typically occurs in nature, the "percentage" of the flux decreases linearly. In our exponential expansion, the first order term corresponds to Newton's Equation; but additional terms are required to define the exponential decay in matter. Even on a relatively low mass planet like the Earth, the relatively slight attenuation of the Uniton Flux traversing it results in significant gravitational forces on much smaller masses on the surface of the planet. One can begin to comprehend the immense density and energy content of this Uniton Flux Field.
     
    RU Адрон #05.08.2002 16:39
    +
    -
    edit
     

    Адрон

    втянувшийся
    We are designing and fabricating a device that is driven by the second order Uniton Flux attenuation effect. A schematic diagram is shown in FIG. 3. The principle of operation can probably best be understood by assuming for the moment, that Shading Ring 9 and Rotor 10 are made of materials that absorbs the Uniton Flux Field completely in a few centimeters of traverse. The centerline of Slot 12 in Shading Ring 9 is aligned slightly within the circumference of Rotor 10. Slot 12 allows some of the flux to impinge onto the periphery of Rotor 10 un-impeded. It is seen that under the previously assumed boundary conditions, Rotor 10 will rotate due to the nearly unidirectional impact of the Uniton Flux upon the periphery of Rotor 10. With a Shading Ring 9 and Rotor 10 of less attenuating material which is absorbing/scattering say only half of the flux, Rotor 10 should still rotate at a lower torque input. If we now consider realistic Uniton Flux attenuating materials, that attenuate only parts per 10.sup.12 /cm or less of the flux, Rotor 10 should still rotate if the frictional and minimum energy-well parameters tending to stall Roto 10, are small enough. The minimum energy conditions are generated by axial miss-alignments, non uniform fields at Rotor 10, and insufficient Rotor balance. Shading Ring 9 can be made of a magnetic material enclosing Rotor 10, which is also made of a magnetic material. Shading Ring 9 may also be made of an insulator which is electro-statically charged, and it encloses Rotor 10 which in this case is also made of a charged insulator. Shading Ring 9 and Rotor 10 made of a neutral mass is not considered practical on a Laboratory scale.

    Ну и т.д. .Задайте номер патента - выпадет весь текст. Народ генерит все это - на полном серьезе!
     
    RU Адрон #05.08.2002 16:46
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    edit
     

    Адрон

    втянувшийся
    A flux field with two Impeding Bodies 6 and 7 is shown in FIG. 2. Full or Un-attenuated Flux 1 is impinging on both Impeding Bodies 6 and 7 from all directions except in directions facing each other. Typical singly attenuated flux lines between Impeding Bodies 6 and 7 are Flux Lines 2 and 2' (long dashed lines). Doubly attenuated Flux Lines 3 (short dashed lines) leaving the Impeding Bodies 6 and 7 respectively, have been attenuated by both Impeding Bodies 6 and 7. Thrust force results between these two bodies, resulting in accelerating these Impeding Bodies 6 and 7 toward each other because Flux Lines 2 and 2' are less dense than Flux Lines 1. For two bodies rotating around each other, like in the case of binary stars, we can expect the attenuated flux to vary relative to a fixed point; increased flux in the direction of alignment of the bodies, and nominal flux in all other directions. We believe that some of the electromagnetic and gravity flux signals emitted by binary stars are also produced in this manner.

    We believe that the attenuation of the flux, which generates the force or thrust is not linear within the impeding body, but exponential. The attenuation can be expressed exactly in a power series of infinite order. The signs of the higher order or non linear terms alternate. The sign of the first order or linear attenuation term is of course positive. The second order or compound attenuation term is negative, i.e. it reduces the attenuated flux (by a relatively small amount). The third order or cubic effect is positive. The second order term is orders of magnitude smaller than the first order term, the third order term is orders of magnitude smaller than the second order term, and so on.

    Newton's Laws of Gravitation substantially conforms to the above described Uniton Flux Field: Every mass "attracts" every other mass in the Universe. The force is a function of the inverse square of the spacing between masses. The force between masses is (substantially) directly proportional to the magnitude of the masses. The Newtonian Gravitational Force Equation can be derived by assuming that the absolute value of the flux decreases linearly through differential elements of the mass. However, for an exponential decay tat typically occurs in nature, the "percentage" of the flux decreases linearly. In our exponential expansion, the first order term corresponds to Newton's Equation; but additional terms are required to define the exponential decay in matter. Even on a relatively low mass planet like the Earth, the relatively slight attenuation of the Uniton Flux traversing it results in significant gravitational forces on much smaller masses on the surface of the planet. One can begin to comprehend the immense density and energy content of this Uniton Flux Field.

    [ слишком длинный топик - автонарезка ]
     
    NZ TEXOCMOTP #06.08.2002 00:44
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    TEXOCMOTP

    втянувшийся

    ну и кто это полностью прочел? :)
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- "Мы не унаследовали нашу землю от предков - мы заняли её у наших детей." ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Чтобы быть справедливым возмездье могло, лишь злом воздавать подобает за зло. (Фирдоуси)  

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